Wood Terms - A Lumber Glossary from A - Z

A complete "Woodipedia" of lumber terms for experts & amateur woodworkers alike.

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Woodipedia Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Wood Terms that Start with "F"
Lumber Glossary Term Definition
Face

When a board has one side that is wider than the other, the wider side is referred to as the face (as opposed to the edge). This may also refer to the side that is to visible in the finished item.

Face Flaps

Used for writing bureaus and cabinets where it is essential to preserve an uninterrupted flush writing surface are hinged with back flap hinges, and can be rebated/rabbeted over the carcass sides.

Face Frame

In cabinetmaking, a face frame is a flat frame attached to the front of a carcase. The face frame is used to conceal the exposed edges of plywood panels used to build the carcase.

Face Side

The wide surface of a piece of lumber; the wide surface showing the better quality or appearance from which a piece is graded.

Face Width

The width of the face of any piece of lumber; in tongued or lapped (rabbeted) lumber, it does not include width of tongue or lap.

Face Veneer

High quality veneer that is used for exposed surfaces on plywood.

Factory Lumber

Lumber intended to be cut up for use in further manufacture’ it is graded on the basis of the percentage of the area which will produce a limited number of cuttings of a specified, or a given minimum, size and quality.

Fall-Down

Lumber not up to a particular grade.

FAS (First and Second)

Mixed domestic hardwood lumber grade is the highest grade of hardwood lumber. In most species, a board must be 6” or wider, 8’ or longer. Walnut and butternut are the exceptions.

Fascia (facia)

A broad, flat, horizontal surface, sometimes used to cover a joint, or as the other edge of a cornice.

Fasteners

Generic term for bolts, nails, bolts, and other connecting devices.

Fb

Extreme fiber stress in bending

FBM

Feet board measure

FCPW

Flat car paper wrapped

Featherboard

A piece of wood with thin “fingers” that hold a board against a fence or down against the table of a power tool; usually a table saw or router.

Feed Rate

The distance that the stock being processed moves during a given interval of time or operation cycle.

Feet Board Measure (FBM, FT, BM)

A term used to indicate a specific unit of measure.

Feet Surface Measure (FTSM)

A term used to indicate a specific unit of measure

Fence

A straight guide to keep a board a set distance from a blade or other cutters.

FG

Flat of slash grain.

Fiber Saturation Point

The stage in the drying or wetting of wood at which the cell walls are saturated and the cell cavities free from water. It applies to an individual cell or group of cells, not to whole boards.

Fibril

A threadlike component of cell walls, invisible under a light microscope.

Fiddleback

A type of washboard-like figure that occurs in some species of wood with wavy grain; a decorative wood figure caused by wavy grain. Fiddleback veneer is prized for its character and widely used for musical instruments.

Figure

Any distinctive appearance on a longitudinal wood surface resulting from anatomical structure, irregular coloration or defects.

Figured Bubinga

  • Medium red-brown with purple veining
  • Straight to interlocked grain
  • Moderately coarse but even texture
  • Low bending characteristics
  • Works easily with hand and power tools
  • Pre-drilling is required for nailing
  • Used primarily as a veneer for cabinetwork. Also used for knife handles, and fancy goods.

Filler

A substance that is used to fill pores and irregularities on the surface of material to decrease the porosity before applying a finishing coat.

Filtch Matched

See ‘bookmatched’.

Finger Joint

A method of joining two pieces of lumber end-to-end by sawing a set of projecting “fingers” that interlock into the end of each piece. This makes for a strong glue joint when the pieces are pushed together.

Finish

A term indicating the higher grades of lumber, sound, relatively free of blemishes.

Finished Size

The net dimensions after surfacing.

Fir

Any evergreen coniferous tree, especially of the genus Abies, with needles borne singly on the stems.

Fire Endurance

A measure of the time during which a material or assembly continues to exhibit fire resistance under specified conditions of test and performance.

Fire-Retardant A chemical applied to lumber or other wood products to slow combustion and flame spread.
Fire Retardant Treated Wood

As specified in building codes, a wood product that has been treated with chemicals by a pressure process of treated during the manufacturing process for the purpose of reducing its flame spread performance in an ASTM E 84 test conducted for 30 minutes to performance levels specified in the codes.

Firm Heart Stain

A brownish or reddish discoloration, and in the grades where specified, does not affect the use of the piece to any greater extent than the other characteristics of the grade.

Fittings

For dust collection, accessories that are used to connect hoses, pipes, and tools within a dust collection system.

Flake

A small flat wood particle of predetermined dimensions, uniform thickness, with fiber direction essentially in the plane of the flake; in overall character resembling a small piece of veneer.

Flame Spread

The propagation of a flame away from the source of ignition across the surface of a liquid of a solid, or through the volume of a gaseous mixture.

Flat Car Paper Wrapped (FCPW)

Lumber loaded on an open rail car after being strapped into units and wrapped in weather resistant material. Plastic or papers are commonly used.

Flat Grain (F.G.)

Lumber sawn approximately parallel to the annual growth rings so that all or some form an angle of less then 45 degrees with the surface of the piece.

FLG

Flooring

Filtch

A thick piece of lumber with or without wane (bark) on one or more edges suitable for remanufacturing.

Flooring

A lumber pattern with smooth face and tongue and groove edges.

Flush

When two adjoining surfaces are perfectly even with one another.

FOB

Free on board

FOHC

Free of heart center

Foot (FT)

A unit of lineal measurement usually used to indicate the length of lumber.

Footing

The below-ground support of a deck’s post; usually made from concrete.

Forest

Area managed for the production of timber and other forest productions or maintained as wood vegetation for such indirect benefits as protection of catchment areas or recreation.

Forestation

Establishment of a forest, artificially or naturally, or an area, whether previously forested or not.

Forest Economics

The branch of forestry concerned with the forest as a productive asset subject, in relation to economic principles.

Forest Floor

A general term for the surface layer of soil supporting forest vegetation; includes all dead vegetation on the mineral soil surface in the forest as well as litter and unincorporated humus.

Forest Management

The practical application of scientific economic, and social principles to the administration and workings of a specific forest area for specified objectives.

Forest Practice

Any activity that enhances and/or recovers forest growth or harvest yield, such as fertilization, harvesting, planting, site preparation, and thinning. Road construction or reconstruction within forest lands for the purpose of facilitating harvest or forest management. Any management of slash, resulting from the harvest or improvement of tree species.

Forest Residuals

Sum of unused and wasted wood in the forest, including logging residues, annual mortality, and dead, rough, and rotten trees. Unmerchantable material normally left following conventional logging operations other than whole-tree harvesting.

Forestry

A profession embracing the art of creating, business, and science, conserving, and managing forests, and forest lands for the continuing use of their materials, resources, and other forest products.

Forest Type

Classification of forest land in terms of potential cubic-foot volume growth per acre at the culmination of mean annual increment (C.M.A.I.), in fully stocked natural stands. Classification of forest land is based on the species forming a plurality of live-tree stocking. Type is determined on the basis of species plurality of all live trees that contribute to stocking.

Forest Stewardship Council

An independent, non-governmental organization established to promote responsible management of the worlds forests and is probably the most well-known forest certification program worldwide. FCS standards of responsible forestry are applied to management of the forest land. A chain-of-command (COC) certification ensures that forest products that carry the FSC label can be tracked back to the certified forest from which they came.

Formica

Composed of layers of Kraft paper impregnated with phenolic resins.

Forster Bit

These have a center spur and circular timbers with cutting teeth that cut clean flat bottomed holes.

Found Curve

Naturally occurring crooked timbers usually with two sides sawn and two sides with the bark removed; used as beams, knee braces, and posts.

Framing

Lumber used for structural members in a house or other building. This is the skeleton to which floors, roofs, and sides are attached.

Framing Chisel

A large chisel with long, heavy blades, strong enough to be hit with a heavy mallet.

Framing Lumber

A term generally applied to lumber when the nominal size is 2 through 4 inches thick and 2 inches and wider; lumber used to construct a building or structure.

Framing Square

A flat piece of metal shaped like an “L”, with measurements along both legs of the “L”; commonly used when building decks for marking lines perpendicular to the length of lumber.

Free Along Side

Seller delivers the shipment within reach of ship’s loading tackle. All dock charges and freight from point of origin to the dock have been paid by the seller. Freight charges to the final destination are billed to the buyer.

Free of Heart Center (FOHC)

Lumber sawn to exclude the heart center or pith of the log.

Free on Board (FOB)

Refers to a named point to which the seller will deliver and load lumber on board transportation equipment at no additional charge to the buyer. Freight or other charges to final destination are for the buyers account.

Freestanding Platform Deck

A deck supported entirely by its own structure, typically used for remote decks.

Freight Measure

“Board Measure” contents of lumber-when calculated from measurements of over-all dimensions; it is used only for displacement measurements for freight purposes.

Fret Saw

A saw with a very fine toothed blade used for delicate cuts in thin material.

Friction

A saw blade made with one piece of carbon steel used at high speeds to soften metal for removal.

Friction Sawing

Usually a type of band sawing that uses high speed to generate heat to soften the metal in front of the blade.

FRT

Freight

FT

Foot

FT SM

Feet surface measure

Full Length

Cut so the ends can be squared to exact length tallied.

Full Sawn Lumber

Green Lumber, cut full to a specified size without variation undersize at time or original inspection.

Full-Cell Process

Any process for impregnating wood with preservatives or chemicals, in which a vacuum is drawn to remove air from the wood before admitting the preservative.

Full-Cut Lumber

Lumber that in thickness and width measures fully up to specified sizes; a term sometimes confused with ‘cut-full’ lumber, the latter admitting lumber intentionally manufactured in larger than nominal thickness and width.

Fungicide

A chemical that kills fungi; used to control fungal diseases in greenhouses and nurseries.

Fungus Stain

Lumber stain caused by fungus growth in wood; fungi can be either of the sapwood-staining or decay-producing types.

Furnish

Wood material that has been reduced for incorporation into conventional wood-based composites; including flakes, particles, and fiber.

Free Water

Moisture found in the cell cavities of wood.

Woodipedia Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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