Common Names
Scientific Name
Betula spp.
North America, Europe, Asia
Birch heartwood ranges from pale yellow to reddish-brown. It often features creamy white or light brown sapwood. The grain is typically straight, but it can also be wavy or curly. The wood has a fine to medium texture and a low natural luster.
Avg. Dried Weight
42-49 lbs/ft3 (670-780 kg/m3)
Janka Hardness
1260 lbf
Modulus of Rupture
14,500 lbf/in2 (100.0 MPa)
Elastic Modulus
1,670,000 lbf/in2 (11.52 GPa)
Crushing Strength
7,680 lbf/in2 (53.0 MPa)
Radial: 4.5%, Tangential: 8.9%, Volumetric: 13.4%, T/R Ratio: 2.0
Rated as perishable, susceptible to decay and insect attacks.
Birch wood is generally easy to work with. It has good machining properties and it turns, glues, and finishes well. It responds well to steam bending. The wood may require filling for open-pored finishes to achieve a smooth surface. It can be stained, polished, and painted to achieve desired results.

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