Common Names
Scientific Name
Carya illinoinensis
South-central United States and Mexico
Heartwood tends to be light to medium brown, with a reddish hue; sapwood is a paler yellowish brown. Grain is usually straight, though occasionally wavy. Texture is medium, with a low natural luster. Endgrain: Ring-porous to semi-ring-porous; large to very large earlywood pores in a single intermittent row, medium to small latewood pores solitary and radial multiples of 2-3, few; tyloses common; parenchyma reticulate (bands absent from earlywood row in true hickory group, but present in pecan hickory group); narrow rays, close spacing.
Avg. Dried Weight
46 lbs/ft3 (735 kg/m3)
Janka Hardness
1820 lbf
Modulus of Rupture
13,700 lbf/in2 (94.5 MPa)
Elastic Modulus
1,730,000 lbf/in2 (11.93 GPa)
Crushing Strength
7,850 lbf/in2 (54.1 MPa)
Radial: 4.9%, Tangential: 8.9%, Volumetric: 13.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.8
Considered to be non-durable to perishable regarding heartwood decay, and also very susceptible to insect attack.
Difficult to work, with tearout being common during machining operations if cutting edges are not kept sharp; the wood tends to blunt cutting edges. Glues, stains, and finishes well. Responds well to steam bending.

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